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Sunday, 23 January 2022

23.01.2022 - Black Faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor)

Name: Black Faced Spoonbill
Other Name: Lesser Spoonbill
Scientific Name: Platalea minor 
Local (Malay) Name: Sekendi Sudu Muka Hitam
Measurement: 60 - 78 cm


Black Faced Spoonbill is a species water bird belongs to the ibis and spoonbill family (Threskiornithidae). It has the most restricted distribution of all six species of spoonbills. As it name implies, it has a spatula shaped bill

Black Faced Spoonbill (Sub-adult)


Description:

Non breeding adults are white with black facial skin, bill and legs. Breeding spoonbills have chest washed with yellow, as well as with yellow markings at its eyes and long plumes. Subadults looks alike the non breeding adults, however their primaries are tipped with black, which is visible during flight.

Black Faced Spoonbill in breeding plumage, from Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China).
Photo credits: Mengti Yang (Taiwan)

 
Black Faced Spoonbill in breeding plumage, from Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China).
Photo credits: Mengti Yang (Taiwan)


Status and Distribution:

Vagrant. 

Black Faced Spoonbills are confined to the coastal region of East Asia. Breeds on the West coast of Korean Peninsular, Liaoning Province (China) and East coast of Khankha Lake (Russia). It winters (October to April) at Taiwan (Tsengwen Estuary), Hong Kong (Deep Bay), coastal area of South China, South Korea (Jeju), Japan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand and the Philippines. It is considered as passing migrant at East coast of Korean Peninsular, Japan and coastal region of East China. 

It was sighted on 19th November 2019 for the first time in Malaysia at North Central Selangor Coast, IBA MY011, by Ong Kang Woei, Chin Choong Liung, Low Kok Hen, Jacelyn See and Yeap Chin Aik during a boat survey. One individual (sub adult) observed flying towards South. It was distinguished as a Black Faced Spoonbill by comparing its leg projection during flight with other possible spoonbill species (Eurasian Spoonbill).

A sub-adult Black Faced Spoonbill sighted in 2019 at IBA MY011- First Record for Malaysia.
Photo credits: Ong Kang Woei (UPM, Malaysia)
It was later sighted for the second time on 15th December 2020 at Teluk Air Tawar - Kuala Muda Coast IBA MY003 by Dr Nur Munirah of Shorebirds Peninsular Malaysia Project. It was a sub adult spoonbill, seen feeding at Sungai Penaga tidal flats. The bird was last seen feeding at this spot on 29th Dec 2020 (morning). It was believed had flew away to other location. SPMP team tried to relocate the bird along the coast, yet the it was not seen again.

A sub-adult Black Faced Spoonbill from Teluk Air Tawar-Kuala Muda coast - 2nd record for Malaysia.

Another individual was sighted at Kota Belud (Tempasuk rice field) on 6th Jan 2021 onward. It was seen feeding on freshwater shrimps.

3rd sighting of Black Faced Spoonbill for Malaysia, from Tempasuk rice field (Kota Belud, Sabah). Photo credits: Boris Soon (Sabah)

Black Faced Spoonbill (sub-adult), from Tempasuk rice field (Kota Belud, Sabah). Photo credits: Vui Kun (Sabah)

Black Faced Spoonbill (sub-adult), from Tempasuk rice field (Kota Belud, Sabah). Photo credits: Vui Kun (Sabah)

Black Faced Spoonbill (sub-adult), from Tempasuk rice field (Kota Belud, Sabah). Photo credits: Vui Kun (Sabah)

There were 3 sightings recorded for spoonbills at Sabah in the 1960s (22nd Feb 1962 and 11th Sept 1968 - Papar, 12th Jan 1968 - Tempasuk), yet the actual species were unable to be determined and tagged as "Uncertain". It could be either a Black Faced Spoonbill or a Eurasian Spoonbill. 


Confusion Species:

Both Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia leucorodia) and Black Faced Spoonbill are similar looking birds and also forage together. Eurasian Spoonbills can be distinguished from Black Faced Spoonbill by its yellow tipped black bill and the lack of black facial skin

Eurasian Spoonbill (non breeding plumage) from Chambal River, Rajasthan, India. Photo credits: Sunil Singhal (Rajasthan, India)

Eurasian Spoonbill (non breeding) from Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Photo credits: Mengti Yang (Taiwan)



Geographical Variation:

None. Monotypic.


Behavior:

Forages in flock. It feed on fish, shrimps and large aquatic insects, that were caught by sweeping the partially opened bill in the turbid water preferentially during dawn and dusk. The bill will be opened wider if most preys are large. It was not clear on how the bird gauges the width of its opening; it could be the bird sensed or encountered larger prey, or by observing the prey size caught by other individuals.

Black Faced Spoonbill (sub-adult), from Teluk Air Tawar - Kuala Muda coast, IBA MY003

 
Once the bill partially immersed in the water, the bird sweeps the bill in the water from side to side. The flatness of the mandibles minimizes the drag and turbulence while the bird sweep its bill looking for its prey. This reduces the chances of prey to get disturbed in advance and flee due to turbulence. Closer analysis of its bill revealed that there are numerous pits found on the tip of its mandibles. The pits are relatively more dense on the laterals and insides of the bill. These pits are most likely spaces for the sensory receptors. Therefore its bill construction explains well for its lateral feeding movements. Once the prey is captured, the bill is taken out from the water and prey is tossed and swallowed whole. From field observation, it do not raise its bill tip above the horizontal when it handles and swallows the prey. 



Compared to storks, Black Faced Spoonbill's  "sweepings" are observed to be much faster, probably due to the bill's structure and larger number of receptors. These receptors also enable the bird to hunt in turbid water and during night time, with minimal visual clues. 

The bird advances with a step forward at the end of every sweeps. Steps are paused when prey is captured and handled for swallowing. The spoonbill also sweeps without stepping forward when the water is too deep to walk about and prey concentration is relatively high. The bottom structure of foraging area and occurrence of obstacles also hinder its move-about during feeding. 


Habitat:

Tidal flats, estuaries, artificial wetlands and freshwater habitats (i.e. rice fields)


Breeding:

Breeds in colony along with other water birds (i. e. Grey Heron, cormorants and gulls). Male spoonbill will initiate the courtship by preening the female's cheek, head and neck. Female will respond with preening too. After few minutes, the male spoonbill will raise its plume and grasp the female's bill, then proceeds to copulate. The courtship and copulation will continue until the day before last egg is laid. Some birds tend to change their mate in different years. Nest is build with sticks; more sticks will be added during incubation and brooding. Male bird will bring the sticks and passes to the female where it places sticks on the nest. It also been observed to re-use old nest, including those old nests of other birds, i.e. Grey Heron nest. 

Two to three eggs (white with small brown spots) are laid. Incubation period is approximately 26 days. Both male and female take turn to incubate the eggs. Eggs are turned in between incubation shifts. Night incubation is done by female bird itself. 

Brooding period is about 40 days. The nestlings initially will have pointed bill tip, which turn into more rounded shape later. The spoon shaped bill appears in approximately 2 weeks time after hatched. The breeding plumage of the adults will disappear and plumes will shed about 30 days after the chicks hatched. Chicks will fledge in 40 days


Hybrids:

Hybrids between a male Eurasian Spoonbill and a female Black Faced Spoonbill were recorded between year 2012-2015 at Incheon, South Korea. A total of 11 eggs were laid during these period, which produced 9 successful hybrid offspring. The hybrids had intermediate morphology between Black Faced and Eurasian Spoonbill; with larger body, longer bills and legs than Black Faced Spoonbills. Hybrids also lacks the black facial skin and have much smaller, paler yellow patch under its lower mandible. There is a variation in the portion of black markings on the facial skin among the hybrid individuals. 


Conservation Status:

Classified as "Endangered" under IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is a totally protected species in its breeding regions. Its conservation actions was initiated in the 1990s where back then it was evaluated as "Critically Endangered" species globally. In the end of 1990s, the Black Faced Spoonbill had become one of the best known conservation stories in East Asia. In ten years, the effort really made a change in the local attitude to the conservation of this bird. Second conservation planning were initiated in 2005 in Japan, for those birds population in Russia, East coast of China and South Korea. 

It was initially listed as "Threatened" species under World Checklist of Threatened Birds by International Council for Bird Preservation (now known as Birdlife International) in the late 1988. Six years later, it was listed as "Critically Endangered" in the revised edition as more details had been known regarding its population and threats at its wintering grounds. In the late 1990s, its status was re-evaluated since it could not meet the "Critically Endangered" criteria due to some increase in its population and reduction of its threats as well. Therefore the Black Faced Spoonbill was classified as "Endangered" after that and its status was remain unchanged till now. 

Based on the International Black Faced Spoonbill Census done in 2021 by Hong Kong Bird Watching Society (HKBWS), 5222 wintering individuals had been recorded from Korean Peninsular, Japan, coastal area of China and Philippines.. This number show an increase (of 7%) in the population compared to year 2020 (4864 individuals recorded). However regionally, significant drop in the population had been recorded between 2020 and 2021 (Mainland China, Deep Bay area of Hong Kong and Shen Zen, Republic of Korea and the Philippines).

Population trend of Black Faced Spoonbill at wintering region. Source: International Black Faced Spoonbill Census 2021.

Habitat loss and degradation is the greatest threat for the Black Faced Spoonbills throughout its range since tidal flats reclamation (for agriculture, aquaculture, industries and urban developments) is considered severe at both of its breeding and wintering grounds. This is further contributed by the high human population density and rapid economic growth of East Asian countries. 

Pollution, which is contributed by industries and settlement adjacent to its habitat, is another threat for this species, since it reduces the available food source at the tidal flats. Hunting and egg collection also reduces its numbers in the wild. This species also disturbed by other human activities such as  fishing, shellfish collection, bird watching and photography, especially at its breeding sites. According to a  research done in 1999 at Xing Ren region of China revealed that shellfish collectors, photographers and powerboats are the major sources of disturbance causing the Black Faced Spoonbills to abandon its nests.

Since habitat loss and degradation contributes mostly to the population decline of this bird, important sites need to be identified and legally designated as protected areas or protected through proper land use planning and management at those sites. Proper enforcement also needed to reduce human interference at these protected areas to ensure successful breeding which may boost the its population. 


References:

1. Ueta. M, Kurosawa. R and Allen. D (2000) Conservation and Research of Black Faced Spoonbills and Their Habitat, Wild Bird Society of Japan.

2. Swennen. Cornellis, Yu Y.T. (Jan, 2009) Food and Feeding Behavior of the Black Faced Spoonbill, Ecological Studies of Endangered Black Faced Spoonbill.

3. Yu Y.T, Li, C.H., Tse, I.W.L. and Fong, H.H.N. (2021) International Black Faced Spoonbill Census 2021, Black Faced Spoonbill Research Group, The Hong Kong Bird Watching Society & BirdLife International.

4. In-Ki Kwon, Ki-Sup Lee, Ji-Yeon Lee, Jong-Hyun Park and Jeong-Chil Yoo, Hybridization between the Black Faced Spoonbill (Platalea minor) and Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia) in South Korea, Waterbirds, 40(1), 77-81, (1 Mar 2017).

5. MNS Records Committee, https://sites.google.com/site/mnsbccrecordscommittee/Home/latest-news

Special Thanks for those who contribute photographs and information:

1. Dr Nur Munira, Shorebirds Peninsular Malaysia Project.
2. Dave Bakewell
3. Premala Arulampalam-Gehri & Adrian Gehri (Kota Kinabalu, Sabah)
4. Ong Kang Woei (UPM, Malaysia)
5. Sunil Singhal (Rajasthan, India)
6. Mengti Yang (Taiwan)
7. Boris Soon (Sabah)
8. Vui Kun (Sabah)

Sunday, 2 January 2022

02.01.2022 - Milky Stork (Mycteria cinerea)

Name: Milky Stork
Scientific Name: Mycteria cinerea
Local (Malay) Name: Burung Botak Upih / Burung Upih / Upih Bakau
Measurement: 91 - 97 cm 

Milky Stork is a stork species mainly found at the coastal mangroves of some South East Asian countries. Earlier was grouped under the genus "Ibis", later it was placed under the genus "Mycteria" as for their similarities with other stork species in the genus. The term "Mycteria" means snout or "nose" in Ancient Greek; "cinerea" means "ashy coloured" in Latin, which is rather confusing as this stork appears white. There are cases whereby the term "cinerea" being used for describing "whitish" colours of some plants and animals as well. 

"This species was first known to me through in 1996 my first bird guide book "Pengenalan Burung-Burung Malaysia" published by World Wide Fund for Nature Malaysia (1989). It was described that the population of  Milky Stork is rapidly declining and the last strong hold is Kuala Gula sanctuary. At that time, I was in doubt whether I would be able to see this bird in the wild before its too late."

Description:

Milky Storks are slightly smaller than Painted Storks. Adult storks appear in white with black flight feathers and tails. Bare facial skin is orange-red with irregular black blotches. Bill is yellow. During breeding season, the facial skin appears in wine red color, which fades to its original color soon after the courtship. Bill turns into deep yellow and legs will be in deep magenta during the courtship. Immature birds look similar to those of Painted Storks. Head, neck and wing coverts are pale brown, with darker flight feathers and tail. Hybridization due occur, mostly recorded in captivity. The hybrids of Milky and Painted storks, with some black markings on their upper wing coverts and lacks the pinkish tinge on its tertial and inner secondary feathers. Some has much paler upper wings compared to those Painted Storks.

A free ranging Milky Stork at Taiping Lake Garden

Immature Milk Stork


Status and Distribution:

Uncommon localized resident of Peninsular Malaysia. Kuala Gula (Perak) sanctuary was its stronghold once. Free ranging Milky Storks can be seen at Taiping Lake Garden (Perak), as a result of successful breeding program done by Taiping Zoo. Milky Storks are also seen in small numbers (mostly flock along with Painted Storks) at Johor (Tanjung Piai, and Sungai Danga), Selangor (Shah Alam Lake Garden), Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Malacca (Sungai Putat). 


Confusion Species:

Milky Storks can be at times confused with its close relative, the Painted Stork. This was seen in some recorded observation in some webpages. Milky Storks lacks the black markings on its wing coverts and the pinkish tinge on its tertial feathers of Painted Storks. Underwing plumage also different from those Painted Storks; Painted Stork's flight feathers are black, with black and white markings on lesser and median underwing coverts which cross over its chest. As for Milky Storks, the lesser and median underwing coverts are white. In side by side comparison, Milky Storks appear smaller than Painted Storks.


Comparison between the underpart of Milky Stork (Top) and Painted Stork (Bottom)


Geographical Variation:

None. Monotypic


Behavior:

Moves and forages in flocks. Also flocks along with Painted Storks. Fish is their main diet. Those Milky Storks occurs along coastal mangroves are recorded to consume mainly on mudskippers. The storks found at Taiping Lake Garden were seen taking fish along with small snakes and frogs. Preys are captured by sense of touch and also by visual searching. Hunting mechanisms of Milky Storks that had been observed are:

1. Groping - It walks slowly through shallow water while the bill is submerged partially in the water, often draw its bill in an arc side to side. It then rapidly shuts the mandibles as soon as the prey touches the groping bill. This typical hunting method is also known as "active tactolocation". Sometime the stork stands stationary, waiting for the prey to make contact with its opened mandibles, which is termed as "passive tactolocation".

2. Direct Probing - With partially opened mandibles, the bill is directly probed into holes on mudflats to capture prey in the mud.

3. Prey Herding - Milky Storks also cooperatively flush prey into shallower water in flocks, which adds more success rate in their hunt. It uses its feet to "agitate" and drive out the fish from its hide at the water edge, which later captured in between its gaped bill. 

Once captured, the prey is swallowed whole after some tossing. 

Groping for prey

A Milky Stork stirring the grasses with its feet at the water edge to drive the prey out from its hide


Habitat:

Coastal mangroves with tidal mudflats, and estuaries.


Breeding:

Breeding typically occurs from April to November. In Taiping, free ranging Milky Storks are recorded to breed from March to August. It breed colonially, along with other species as well at the matured mangroves. Tall, dead mangrove trees (mostly Avicennia sp.) are chosen for nesting. Courtship display is done by bowing and bill raising. Nest is built with medium live sticks of mangrove species. Typically 2 to 3 eggs are laid, incubated for 30 days. It takes approximately 50 days for the chicks to fledge


Hybrids:

Recorded to breed with Painted Storks (Mycteria leucocephala) and Lesser Adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus) in captivity.


Conservation Status:

Classified as "Endangered" under IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Census for Milky Storks were started in 1983 at Matang Mangrove Forest. Perak Forestry Department classified two areas within Matang Mangrove Forest; Pulau Kalumpang Lake and Pulau Terong Lake as main conservation ground for the Milky Storks. Despite of all effort taken by the government, the population of Milky Stork rapidly declined, from 150 individual in 1980s to less than 10 storks, in 20 years. In 1935, a breeding colony of these storks existed in Pulau Ketam (Selangor), which later wiped out by human interference (i.e. poaching). Currently, only 5 wild Milky Storks had been seen so far at Matang Mangrove Forest and it has become more and more uncommon now. Among the factors that had contributed to its population decline in the wild were: 

a. unsuccessful breeding due to the decrease of larger, matured trees at the coastal mangroves.

b. higher population density of predators, which leads to higher chances of egg and nestling predation (i.e. Brahminy Kite, White Bellied Sea Eagle, Asian Water Monitor, Common Palm Civets, Long Tailed Macaque). 

c. human interference, through mangrove wood harvesting, pollution and the presence of human itself at the habitat/nesting site of the storks (due to fishing, hunting and other forestry activities), since Milky storks are very sensitive to disturbance.

d. migrated to other locations due to lack of prey items and suitable nesting area


Population Trend of Milk Storks at Matang Mangrove Forest from 1983 to 2006

As a respond to the declining population of Milky Storks, PERHILITAN along with Zoo Negara and Malaysian Nature Society (MNS) initiated "Milky Stork Breeding and Reintroduction Program" in the late 1980s. This is to achieve a free flying population of Milky Storks at Kuala Selangor Nature Park (KSNP) and also to re-establish the storks at other sites at the coastal mangroves of Selangor. The program was made into two phase: 

a.     Phase 1 (between 1987 to 1996) - to build up stock of breeding storks in Zoo Negara.
b.    Phase 2 (between 1996 to 2004) - to release the storks (2nd generation) in the on-site aviary built in KNSP. 

A total of 10 storks (3 males and 7 females) were obtained from Zoo Negara and released in the aviary of KNSP. Nests were seen but the breeding was unsuccessful (eggs hatched but no young fledged). It was decided to release all the storks after one of them escaped the aviary through a tear in the aviary netting. 

The free flying storks later began courtship and 3 nest were found within a Grey Heron colony at KNSP. From a total of 6 eggs, 5 chicks hatched. 3 dies within few days, and the last 2 were killed when the nest was toppled by storm. As in 2004, 4 storks were regularly seen at coast of Sungai Buloh by bird watchers so far. 

The program later was discontinued due to lack of funding to maintain the aviary as well as to feed and monitor the storks. Lack of expertise in behavior and breeding biology of those storks is mentioned to be another reason for the program to be unsuccessful. 

Even though the wild population had decline rapidly, the number of captive and free ranging Milky Storks has steadily risen. Zoo Negara had over 224 individuals in 2007, resulted by captive breeding program initiated in the year 1987 (Phase 1 of "Milky Stork Breeding and Reintroduction Program"), with 10 Milky Storks.

Currently we can see a good population of Milky Storks wandering around Taiping Lake Garden, as a result of successful breeding of free ranging storks at Taiping Zoo. The lakes adjacent to the zoo provides food for these free flying birds. However the storks still has to return to the zoo for nesting. Tall trees within the zoo compound provides a safer nesting area for the storks, against predation. So far there are 34 free flying Milky Storks around Taiping Zoo area. 

Another issue that can lead Milky Storks to extinction is hybridization. When an endangered species hybridizes with closely related species, it might get absorbed into that species. There is record of the Milk Stork x Painted Stork hybrids escaped from captivity into the wild and interbred with wild birds. Therefore, the population of "pure" Milky Storks in the wild will be lesser as time goes on, until it is totally extinct. As for this, strict removal of hybrids from the wild along with the introduction of genetically pure Milky Storks ensures the species survival. 


References:

1. David Li Zuo Wei, Siti Hawa Yatim, John Howes and Rahmah Ilias (2006) Status Overview and Reccomendations for the Conservation of Milky Strok Mycteria cinerea in Malaysia, Wetland Internation & Dept of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia.

2. Wikipedia, 2017. "Milky Stork". Last Modified March 4, 2017.

3. Dr. Kevin Lazarus (Taiping Zoo and Night Safari), Nov 16, 2021.

Saturday, 1 January 2022

01.01.2022 - Year 2021 Closing

Greetings Guys. Happy New Year to you all. 

Year 2021 been a year mixed up with all sorts of things when it comes to birding. Compared to 2020, I had to admit I travel less for birding, due to MCO travel restrictions and I was not that well either. Therefore the number lifers I got in 2021 is very much less than what I had in 2020. 

In 2021, my target for lifers was 20. I managed to get 33 lifers in total. So it was not that bad after all. I take this opportunity to offer my gratitude to those offered their helping hands to accomplish this. 




Rufous Collared Kingfisher

Chinese Pond Heron

Grey Plover

 Caspian Term (Bottom, Left) and Gull Billed Tern (Bottom, Right)

Little Bronze Cuckoo

Baillon's Crake

Greater Sand Plover

Banded Kingfisher - Male

Banded Kingfisher - Female

Dark Sided Flycatcher

Ochraceous Bulbul

White Browed Crake

Bronze Winged Jacana

Milky Stork

Collared Owlet

Brown Headed Gull

Chestnut Headed Bee-eater

Great Crested Tern

Crested Myna

Black Faced Spoonbill

Lesser Crested Tern

Long Toed Stint

Brown Hawk-Owl/Brown Boobok

Thursday, 11 November 2021

11.11.2021 - Zebra Dove (Geopelia striata)

Name: Zebra Dove  
Other Names: Barred Ground Dove 
Scientific Name: Geopelia striata
Local Name (Malay): Merbuk Aman / Merbuk Balam / Ketitir
Measurements: 20 -23 cm

Zebra doves are one of the many common garden variety birds we have here in Malaysia. Often seen in pairs or in 2 to 3 numbers foraging for seeds on the ground, as its genus implies; "Geo" means ground, and "peleia" means dove (in Greek). The term "striata" refers to its barred (striated in Latin) plumage. 


Description:

Zebra doves are small and slender birds with long and narrow tail. Upperpart is brownish grey with black barrings; boldly barred in black on the neck and side of its breast. Underpart is pinkish with black barrings on the side of the belly. Face is grey with bluish "eye ring" skin. It has been mentioned by  that adult female zebra doves has a "narrower" pinkish chest plumage compared to those males. As for juveniles, the pinkish chest plumage is absent, replaced by barrings across the breast. Its crown and nape also barred. 

Although sexing through plumage had been mentioned for this dove, its always the best done by observing its behavior in the field. Male birds can be distinguished from females through its "bowing" during the courtship and also during copulation. Its usual call is a rapid series of short "coos". It also makes a guttural sound during nesting time. I have also seen some Zebra doves making a rapid tapping sound to warn other doves; its like series of fast beak tapping sound to be exact. Both male and female are good "coo-ers".


Status and Distribution:

Common resident of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak.


Geographical Variation:

None. Monotypic


Behavior:

Mostly forage for seed on the ground and short grassed plains, either in pairs or in a small group consist of 2 to 4 doves. Some bold enough to get closer to humans. At times joins other birds, such as Rock Pigeons and Eurasian Tree Sparrows feeding on grains fed by humans. Produces "wing whistles" in flight. Mutual grooming had been observed between pairs and (small) group members.


Habitat:

Open country, cultivated land, gardens and parks


Breeding:

Breeding season is from September to June. Male birds court the female by a bowing, raising and spreading the tail. From my observation made, few times when a pair of doves nesting on a hanging flower pot at home, male dove will select a nesting spot and gives out a crackling call to the female; the male then copulates the female. 

Nest is build with mesh of plant fibers, roots, small twigs even synthetic broom fibers; in most cases 2 white eggs (at times 3 eggs) are laid.  The eggs hatch after 2 weeks of incubation. Incubation is done by both male and female by taking turns. Chicks are fed with crop milk by the parents and later will introduce a proportion of softened adult food. When parents are not at the nest, the chicks will respond to threats by raising up their wings vertically. The chicks will be able to fledge in 2 weeks time and remain around nesting area for few weeks.


Conservation Status:

Least Concern based on IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Zebra doves are trapped from wild and bred for songbird competitions and commonly sold in pet shops for those who wish to buy and free the birds, in the believe of bad karma removal.


References:
  1. Craig Robson, 2017, A Field Guide to The Birds of South East Asia, Bloomsbury,  London.
  2. YC Wee, April 2018, Zebra Dove: Adult Male, Female and Juvenile, Bird Ecology Study Group, https://besgroup.org/2018/08/04/zebra-dove-adult-male-female-and-juvenile/

Zebra Dove - Selangor

Zebra Dove - Selangor

Zebra Dove nest on a hanging pot at home

Zebra Dove nestling in threat pose

An immature Zebra Dove - Selangor

Zebra Dove - Selangor

Zebra Dove - Selangor